The future of sustainable mobility and society belongs to electric vehicles or EVs. Companies globally are aggressively working towards a collective goal of achieving better and safer applications for EVs.
Are you facing challenges in EV batteries and want to improve them? We are leading with the right solution for your problem.
The EV market has grown rapidly in the last couple of decades, and as its popularity grows, the demand for better and improved performance also grows. The manufacturers need to increase the battery density, fast charging feature, and safety aspects of the EVs. Simultaneously, the need arises for a better cooling system for these fast-charging batteries to improve their safety.
Why Is Cooling Required For EV Batteries?
Global companies are trying to tackle the issue of climate change. More and more countries are starting to initiate steps against fossil fuel-based transportation. People opt for the internal combustion engine using electricity to power up the vehicle.
These vehicles use power stored in rechargeable batteries. The regular charging and discharging of the battery generate heat. The heat generation is not good for the battery’s long-term health, which also impacts the vehicles’ performance and driveability.
Earlier, the companies were using air cooling mothed to cope with the heating issue, but as new advancements are happening and demands are also increasing for the safety, protection, and better performance of the vehicle, air cooling is proving to be insufficient.
The electric vehicles were losing their performance, and in some extreme cases, the batteries were also failing. EV manufacturing companies have moved from air cooling to immersion cooling for EV batteries. Air cooling is limited and only effective from 20 to 40 degrees Celcius. It leads to damage to the battery and vehicle.
Immersion cooling is a safer and better alternative to air cooling. Liquid cooling or immersion cooling for EV batteries uses a water-glycol mix. This liquid is pumped and circulated through the battery pack. It uses several tubes and cold plates for the circulation of the mix.
Immersion cooling has been very successful for EV batteries and is also used in data centers and other applications.
The EV battery cells generate a large amount of heat during the charging and discharging session. The rate of heat generation increases during the State of Charge between 20 to 80%. Heat generation happens through exothermic reactions during energy activation and resistance to ionic migration. Chemical transport also contributes to this process.
How Does Immersion Cooling For EV Battery Work?
There are two types of immersion cooling direct and indirect cooling. Indirect immersion cooling uses water and glycol solution. It is a dielectric liquid that flows through a heat sink or cold plate. Indirect cooling works by cooling the battery cells through conduction. This happens inside the battery framework or battery pack.
The glycol is a coolant liquid and is highly electrically conductive too. Glycol is aqueous and shouldn’t be in direct contact with the battery cells or wiring. If the leaks are handled well, it is very effective to use indirect cooling to increase the reliability of the system.
Second, direct immersion cooling uses mineral oil or silicone oil, which works closely with lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-ion battery cells are submerged in mineral oil. The said oils reduce the thermal interface and improve the performance and system cooling.
Immersion cooling is growing very rapidly, and in the future, it will have high application in other areas with high discharge rates or a fast battery charging process. Direct immersion cooling reduces the heat generation in the battery pack by 9% or more. Also, immersion cooling for battery packs is more in demand because it does not require additional ducts or cold panels.
It has enabled manufacturers to use ultra-fast charging for EV batteries without making them excessively heated. Immersion cooling can use more attention to become a better version of itself. 3M is working dedicatedly and has developed specially designed dielectric fluids for EV batteries and other applications. 3M Novec 7100 is the engineered fluid that is non-conductive and non-flammable, a very desired feature of the cooling agents for EV batteries.
Novec 7100 is hydrofluoroether and it has unique properties. these properties make it an ideal component to be used for immersion cooling for electric vehicles. It has low toxicity and very low global warming potential. Its zero ozone depletion potential makes it a very powerful thermal solution.
One point to note here is that immersion cooling uses non-toxic materials following the environmental demands for a sustainable society. It is also non-flammable, making it safer for applications like EVs and data centers.
The dielectric liquids are biodegradable and do not harm or impact the recycling procedure of the batteries. As we established earlier, immersion cooling is still in its initial phase; however, it gives excellent performance.
Future Of Immersion Cooling Solutions
Immersion cooling is a tested cooling method in several industries, e.g., automotive and data centers. It can be used in exceptionally high or low temperatures, different geographical areas, and high altitudes. It has a wide range of operating conditions which makes it safe.
It is considered one of the best ways to reduce or slow down the heat generation process in EV batteries. Immersion cooling is still in its initial phase, and it has the potential to grow and reach many other applications where good and effective cooling methods are required.
Immersion cooling for EV batteries has truly changed people’s views about the safety of electric vehicles. Using immersion cooling has increased the potential and performance of high-performing electric vehicles and established EVs as a mainstream mobility method.
Electric vehicles are the way to deliver sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility and transport. However, the battery creates some challenges for EV manufacturers. The battery cells are closely stacked together, and during any operation, they generate heat.
The battery cells get heated during the charging and discharging of the battery. Advancements in EV batteries like fast and ultra-fast charging have created the issue of excessive heat generation in the battery pack.
For this, manufacturing companies and designers have opted for Immersion cooling for electric vehicles. Immersion cooling for EV batteries uses a mix of water and glycol solution, which is dielectric. This solution is best for refrigeration and cooling EV batteries and is also used in other processes like data centers.
Companies can enhance their customer’s experience by choosing the right cooling method. Also, proper cooling will provide safety to the vehicle while increasing its performance and overall driveability.
You can see the vast range of products used in EVs at www.econtroldevices.com or contact us.